By Stanley E. Curtis (auth.), Gary P. Moberg (eds.)
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Extra info for Animal Stress
24 Price These examples illustrate how the domestication process can influence the responsiveness of captive animals to certain forms of external stimulation. However, it is still not known whether animals suffer if they are denied access to such stimuli. Hughes and Duncan (26) have proposed that in impoverished environments, behaviors largely initiated by external events are potentially less threatening to the general welfare of animals than highly motivated behaviors governed principally by endogenous mechanisms.
Shifting the body's resources or making alterations in physiological systems to maintain homeostatic balance diverts resources from the biological functions that occur prior to the stress. Consider, for example, the adrenal corticosteroid response of a growing animal to emotional stress. The primary function of corticosteroid secretion during stress is believed to induce gluconeogenesis, resulting in increased availability of glucose for metabolism by such glucose-sensitive organs as the CNS. However, this increase in gluconeogenesis directs amino acids and lipids into gluconeogenic pathways at the expense of normal protein and lipid metabolism, thus providing less support for such body functions as growth.
29: 19-47,1949. 36. Scott, J. , and J. L. Fuller. Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1965. 37. Sloan, R. J. Relationships Between Behavior and Reproduction in Captive Wild Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus). Syracuse: State Univ. of New York, College Environ. Sci. , 1973. PhD thesis. 38. Sumption, L. J. Multiple sire mating in swine: evidence of natural selection for mating efficiency. J. Agric. Sci. 56: 31-37, 1961. 39. Tschanz, B. Reaktionsnormen und Adaptation.