By Deon Liles
This publication presents an Introductory method of Human Evolution.
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Additional info for An introduction to human evolution
When the DNA sequences were concatenated to a single long sequence, the generated neighbor-joining tree supported the Homo-Pan clade with 100% bootstrap (that is that humans and chimpanzees are the closest related species of the four). When three species are fairly closely related to each other (like human, chimpanzee and gorilla), the trees obtained from DNA sequence data may not be congruent with the tree that represents the speciation (species tree). The shorter internodal time span (TIN) the more common are incongruent gene trees.
05% indicate a signature of positive Darwinian selection for the V lineage. The M lineage is attributed to ancient population structure of humans in Africa. X-chromosome genes DMD44, APXL, AMELX, TNFSF5 show S-N heterogeneous patterns of variation. While these genes do show the greatest diversity in Africa, consistent with recent African replacement, the genes' varying diversity by region cannot be explained by simple expansion from Africa, which should have resulted in similar diversity patterns for all these genes.
Shang et. al. " A jaw bone found in 2008 and dated to 110,000 kya may also exhibit a mixture of archaic and modern human traits. Europe Comparison of modern human and neanderthal skull Proponents of the multiregional hypothesis argue for regional continuity in Europe on the basis of skeletal anatomy, morphology and genetics of speech and the archaeology of the middle to upper paleolithic transition, which they believe to be inconsistent with the possibility of complete replacement of the Neanderthals in Europe without interbreeding.