By Joel M. Schwartz, Steven F. Hayward
This booklet records how a lot U.S. air caliber has greater in contemporary many years and provides by way of some distance the main actual photograph to be had of continuous pollution difficulties and the way to deal with them.
Read or Download Air Quality in America: A Dose of Reality on Air Pollution Levels, Trends, and Health Risks PDF
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Extra info for Air Quality in America: A Dose of Reality on Air Pollution Levels, Trends, and Health Risks
Only a few percent of monitoring locations still exceed federal PM10 standards, generally by small margins. 5 standard, with only one monitoring location failing to comply as of the end of 2006. 5 standard, though the violation rate dropped by more than half between 2001 and 2006, and most violating sites are close to attainment of the standard. 5 standards. 5 levels. EPA will begin enforcing this new standard in 2010. 5) As with other pollutants, levels of airborne particulate matter have been dropping for decades.
6 As a result of increasing motorvehicle emissions, Los Angeles began to experience a new kind of air pollution in the late 1940s. This “photochemical haze” became known as smog and was composed of ozone and other irritating gases. Yet monitoring data from the 1950s and ’60s show that by 1956, ozone had already begun a steady decline that continued through the 1960s and beyond (see figure 1-3 on page 17). The ozone decline may have begun even earlier, but data are not available before 1956. AIR QUALITY TRENDS 15 FIGURE 1-1 LONG-TERM TRENDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER IN PITTSBURGH Clean Air Act Passed TSP (µg/m3) Dustfall (tons/square-mile/year) 300 Pittsburgh TSP 250 Pittsburgh Dustfall National Avg.
5 EPA’s plan to tighten the standard still further will make ozone attainment a virtual impossibility in much of the nation. Second, the formation of ozone depends not only on the total amounts of ozone-forming pollutants in air, but also on their ratio. When the VOCto-NOx ratio is low, VOC reductions reduce ozone, but NOx reductions can actually increase it, or at least mute the effect of the VOC reductions (see the sidebar in this chapter for more on how this works). This appears to be happening in many cities around the country and suggests that regulators may need to rethink their strategies for achieving the additional reductions necessary to attain the 8-hour standard.