Adverbial Clauses in Scots: A Semantic-Syntactic Study by Martina Häcker

By Martina Häcker

This learn provides a complete syntactic and semantic research of a geographically balanced corpus of written and spoken texts, in modern Scots (including the author's personal box recordings), amply illustrated with examples, hence creating a significant contribution to the sector of English dialect grammar.

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Adverbial clauses: Definitions and classifications 41 clauses linked by conjuncts. For English, the following structural differences can be noted between the different clause types. Juxtaposed clauses (a term borrowed from Greenbaum [1980: 23] which denotes clauses that are neither co-ordinate nor subordinate) can only contain finite verbs. Adverbial clauses may be non-finite or verbless, irrespective of the verb structure of the superordinate construction, while co-ordinate clauses must have corresponding verb structures and generally tend to be structurally similar, due to the fact that the two clauses constitute one situation rather than two.

4. 1. Finite clauses Four types of finite adverbial clauses can be distinguished. The first and most frequent type is introduced by a subordinator. This type is found in almost all semantic categories (with the exception of "clauses of means" and "clauses of accompanying circumstance"), and can be illustrated by the following examples: (3) Twenty years she'd been daen it afore hefoond oot. ' (4) They were better aff fir transport roond here a hunner year ago, because there 's nae railway noo. ' In the second type the subordinator is preceded by a constituent of the predication, typically the constituent positioned last in unmarked word order.

Dialect in speech and writing Dialects are predominantly the medium of everyday informal speech. Whether a dialect exists at all in a written form depends largely on the prestige it carries not only among its native speakers, but also within the society of the country where it is spoken as a whole. The position of Scots is fairly complex in this respect. It is a variety that is perceived as difficult to understand, but it is not one that is antipathetic to most Britons. Writing in Scots has a long tradition, but one that has mainly been restricted to poetry.

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